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A thoughtful reflection is always a way to go:) Beautiful work, Kristine Crusem!

The Human Android
by Kristine Crusem
In the movie, ‘Eve no Jikan’, it was shown that androids can think and act like real human beings. The only thing that distinguishes them from real humans is the ring or the halo on top of their heads. The androids in the movie were created to be of help to human beings. They are the ones who usually do the household chores and work. They also work in different fields, some of them are in business, and some are employed as teachers. The movie completely illustrates how these androids’ functioning is almost the same as the humans. They can do critical thinking and logical reasoning; they have this so called artificial intelligence. Moreover, the movie portrays these human androids to also have emotions and feelings, the same way a real human person do. They can experience joy, sadness, and even frustration. This very act of experiencing emotions and feelings of the creations of humans seems beyond the reality that we know. As far as what human knowledge is concern, the only entity in this planet that can use their own reasoning and feeling are nothing or no one else other than the human  beings their selves.
I believe that the movie’s notion that the futuristic androids that men could create will also be the exact carbon copy of a human’s physiology and functioning is entirely and undoubtedly impossible. I would first state the facts and knowledge I have learned over the years. Since I am a psychology major, one of the first things I’ve learned is that human behavior is not only governed by one factor, there are different factors that influence a person (biological, social, cognitive, etc.); one theory that is applicable to one is not necessarily applicable to everyone. In fact, a person’s self-identity may remain unclear for a long period of time; an individual may also find his/herself asking the question why did he/she do that or why is he/she doing a certain thing. The issue of unpredictability is also of concern for human individuals; “unpredictability is a fundamental part of human nature (Markman, 2008)”. Even in our perception; people’s perception of reality differs from one another. In one situation, there are thousands and thousands of different realities in the eyes of the  different people who perceive it; “What you see and what you hear depends a great deal on where you are standing. It also depends on what sort of person you are. (C.S. Lewis, The Magician’s Nephew)”. Another reason is that, a human’s brain is still kind of a mystery to us. It’s functions and structures are very complex that even some phenomenon remained unanswered. Quoting Strickland (n.d.), “While neurologists have been studying the brain for decades, many mysteries remain. And where there are mysteries, there’s sure to be misinformation”.
Geminoid F poses for pictures in Hong Kong’s Cityplaza mall; taken from
The photograph above, according to Springer (2012), shows the latest android made in Japan by Hiroshi Ishiguro, a Japanese robotics expert. The android has a built-in computer that is programmed to do human gestures and actions. This android has already proved its abilities as a stage performer in singing and as a model. So far, Geminoid F is labelled as the world’s smartest robot. Geminoid F is indeed something that people in the ancient times could have never imagined to exist. Even though this advancement in robotics is still ongoing, people can never replicate something that still remained unanswered and a mystery to them. Androids can do look like humans, with the use of technological knowledge and advancements. However, what does it really take to be called “human”? It’s not just about the looks or the physical aspects. It’s all about our ability to think, feel, and reason out even though it can sometimes be illogical. Androids, no matter what computer program we install to them, they can only function in logic; like what was witnessed in the said movie. That is how we built them, a human can not go beyond what we know as the supernatural.

Techno Love? 

by Kristine Crusem

Image taken from

Is it possible for a human being to fall in love or to have feelings with an android? In the movie ‘Eve no Jikan’,  the answer to this question is yes. I also agree with this proposition. In the movie, the characters of Rikuo Sakisaka and Masakazu Masaki showed how they display emotions and feelings toward their androids. In the case of Sakisaka, he has a female android named Sammy. Initially, it is absurd for Sakisaka to think that his android can actually do things on her own or even have her own emotions. When he found out that Sammy is actually visiting this cafe called ‘The Time of Eve’, he was shocked and he seemed to find it hard to accept. However, in the latter part of the movie, he acknowledge the idea that Sammy can also have her own emotions and feelings. The very act of him considering the well-being of Sammy is a manifestation of showing care towards the android. Another character that showed feelings towards an android is Masaki. Masaki considered Tex, his own android, to be his best friend since he was a kid. He was very attached to Tex for the android was always there for him to take care of him, especially when his parents are always not around the house. Tex served as the one whom Masaki share his problems with. Tex served as his company as he is growing up. There is also another instance in the movie wherein a girl mad her android his lover.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Pyramid; Image taken from

Nevertheless, how is it possible for us humans to fall in love with a non-human, especially to our very own creations? First, let us consider Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. According to Abraham Maslows, quoted by Cherry (n.d.), “…these needs are similar to instincts and play a major role in motivating behavior”. Taking this hierarchy of needs into consideration, when a human’s needs are met by these androids It is possible that humans have this sense of attachment to them. When androids can provide security and even the sense of love and belonging, we as humans can be moved by their actions.


Excellent Work, Melody Capili of INTFILO A52!

Sum Res Cogitans

Night, Absolute Boyfriend (2003-2005)
Absolute Boyfriend is a Japanese manga I used to read when I was in high school. It is story about a lonely girl named Riiko who had always been rejected by boys she liked. One day, a huge package was delivered to her house which happened to be a male android. The android got ‘activated’ when she kissed him. Little did she knew at first, the android was designed to be an absolute boyfriend, and was specially made for sex (the android was designed to last up to 100 rounds in bed), so she named him Night. Night was beastly and sexually aggressive for the first few weeks he lived with Riiko. But since Riiko is meek and conservative, he learned to contain his aggression, and became a gentleman. He remained by Riiko’s side to protect her. They eventually fell in love with each other. However, it was a sad ending for Riiko. Night had a short circuit, so he ‘died’.

Night falling in love with Riiko – is it a human-nature-type of love or just the way he is programmed?

In psychology, self-concept or self-identity refers to how an individual views himself/herself (Kihlstrom et al., 2005). It is influenced by the environment and his/her own biological makeup. A person’s default self (biological makeup) and social self (shaped by other people) interplay for a person to create his own perspective of himself and the world, and to generate responses to things.

Just like any other computers, androids have memory which acts as information storage. This is where they retrieve all necessary information for their overall functioning. They have two types of knowledge. One is embedded memory; that is, the initial programmed memory stored by the manufacturer. The other one is the memory ‘learned’ by the android from its master through his commands. Whatever the master says gets stored in the android’s memory to increase its efficiency.

Ever heard about CLEVERBOT?

People call this site “artificial intelligence”. It is a site where people can ask questions or type in whatever they have in mind and Cleverbot will answer. It even answers in different languages. How did it learn? It stores all information from the questions posed by users and organizes them to create a response. However, some responses turn out to be inappropriate or far off from the topic. For example…

This is because computers, they may have memory, but they do not know how to put them all together to generate meaning.

Remember Doris (DOR-15) from the movie “Meet the Robinsons”?

According to the Bowler Hat Guy, DOR-15, also known as Doris, used to be a prototype invented by Cornelius Robinson which was supposed to be human’s helping hand in all sorts of tasks. Doris was shaped like a bowler hat to elicit its portability by just being worn on the head. It had multiple ‘arms’ so that it could perform multiple tasks at once. Its camera served as its ‘eye’ upon serving its master. However, the Bowler Hat Guy added, Doris realized that she had the potential to go beyond its master’s orders, thus spreading evil. And so Cornelius Robinson shut her down.

Is that possible, for something man-made to go beyond how it is programmed? I don’t think so.

Sum Res Cogitans. It means “I am a thinking thing.” Thinking is not only limited to retrieval of information from memory, and perceiving the experience of things. It is also about making sense of things, and reflecting from it. The main characteristic that distinguishes a human person from an android is that humans are the only ones who makes sense of their thinking. They are the only ones who are able to perform such complex cognitive tasks such as forming relationships between things for further understanding of things. In psychology, this is called meaning-based knowledge. This is based on the semantics formed upon perceiving things. For example, we understand what a chair is not just through mental images such as its salient features and structures, but also its uses and what we associate chairs with. We associate it with a table as its partner, its use for sitting, how it is used in classrooms, houses and work places, etc. Androids cannot do that. They only know that a chair looks like this and is used for this, depending on how their masters orient them with it. They can never realize that the ergonomics of a chair can also be suitable for other kinds of support on materials.

No INTFILO Classes on Monday, March 25, 2013

Dear INTFILO students,

I will not be able to meet you on Monday because of our annual Department Community Outreach which will be mangrove-planting in Batangas for this year.  Please be guided accordingly.  Also, inform your classmates about this announcement.



Featured Post: Thea Castaneda of GENDERS A56

Because a nuanced reflection is a key ingredient to a real feminist work, bravo!

On the Movie Insiang

When we first watched the film, I was hit by a sudden wave of déjà vu. I was pretty sure I had already watched the film, but had no recollection of the story or the circumstances in which I might have previously watched it. With this in mind, I tried to pay a lot of attention to the details in the movie, hoping that I’d remember it before the end. I only realised I’d already watched it when I saw Dado get killed though, so I ended up watching almost the whole movie paying attention to details.

There were a lot of things I didn’t like (as our professor may have noticed by the fact that my paper had a lot of scribbles on the bottom about Insiang, her mother, and the women in the film and their portrayal) but some changes that happened in the progression of the film helped greatly lessen those feelings. That doesn’t mean I was able to be rid of them though. I was still mostly displeased with the film, and the reason for this lies mostly in what I find key in it: perception.

With regards to the article on feminism, the double bind, and the situation of women in the poor communities of the urban side of the Philippines, I think Insiang was a sad but accurate portrayal of the sad reality of women’s places in those areas. Despite what many would say (especially those who subscribe to the brand of feminism that puts forth the argument that women should use their sex as a weapon in order to gain advantages over men), I don’t believe the film was a particularly uplifting feminist statement.

Although Insiang was able to extract what she wanted out of Dado and gained her revenge on both him and Bebot, the fact this was simply a means to an end that was still highly focused on her disempowerment by men makes it a sad ending, at least for me. Insiang was more broken by the end of the film rather than empowered, and her relationship with her mother was also strained. The women in the film were not even able to reap the benefits of “putting the men in their place” as deserving from their actions. There was no great change in how they were viewed either. In retrospect, the burst of strength and willpower on Insiang’s part only really served to disadvantage the women more. I mean, how positive will it look if a man is slain in a woman’s household, and with all the stories surrounding them? Where will Insiang go, when she had been dependent on almost EVERYONE around her? Her act of rebellion felt very weak in that it had hardly any long-term benefits for her, and only weakened her position with the rest of the community.

The reason why I find this movie static (from an attempted feminist point of view) for the characters is because nothing changed in how they were viewed, or how they might have viewed each other in the film. The article “I Am Angry” stresses the importance of perception – from the woman’s perspective and of those around her – when it comes to a woman’s life and freedom. The perception of women remains largely unchanged and I believe highly negative throughout the whole film, save for a few moments here and there. One may argue that the audience may have changed their views on Insiang after her change in behaviour, but I am also a part of the audience and I don’t quite think so. Looking back at the film, I found Insiang to be so dependent – on Bebot, to get her out of the miserable household, on Dado, to extract revenge on Bebot and to hurt those who may have hurt her (including her mother, although that may have been an unconscious motive), and even on her mother, to get her revenge on Dado and then to restore what she lost in herself by the end of the film, although her mother didn’t give her the emotional reconciliation she might have hoped. I think, regardless of how bold her moves were, in the end, she was still so weak. And that kind of view I have of her is what really made me displeased with the film, although it really was a good one.

Going back to the point on perspective, the article, “I Am Angry” points out that those expectations of women had always been a certain way, and especially perpetuated in poor communities, such as the study area in the article and in the movie Insiang. These expectations show how women are viewed, how they are perceived, and ultimately affect the treatment and the kinds of opportunities that these women receive throughout their lifetime in the communities. The article mentions the view of women as simply bodies – not as people to be respected but simply bodies with which one is free to do almost at will. This leads women to be objectified, much as Insiang was throughout most of the film, and throughout the duration of her relationship with Bebot.

This kind of burden of expectation and the limiting of external movement and opportunity creates constraints for personal growth for the woman, and in this, her behaviour becomes affected. This can explain Insiang’s behaviour throughout much of the film, where she is often reserved and silent, until she is ‘broken’ by the experience of rape. The article points out that women can be awakened to a better worldview, but that the awakening must occur for the female consciousness to develop. This led to her changes in behaviour for the rest of the film.

Another view that particularly restricts women, especially in these communities, is the “paradox of domesticity” brought to light by the article. This is a cultural perspective that has developed and perpetuated itself over time and has only recently been truly challenged by societies all over the world. However, those areas which may not be as ‘wired’ as the rest of the world still experience the full effects of this paradox, and feel the constraints of this double bind. This is a focus on the idea that “when you do, you’re damned, and when you don’t you’re damned” – and this is very much evident in the paradox of domesticity. When you completely acquiesce with this view and accustom yourself to it, you become a ‘slave’ to the social construct, and a prisoner of patriarchy. When you do not, you become an antagonist to the peace of the domestic life, and are a ‘rebel’ with hard morals.

Women are both empowered as an essential element in the personal and family life of an individual, but also very limited with regards to their placement within the rest of society. This situation, with other cultural perceptions, shows an embedded character consciousness in women. This necessitates a struggle for liberation as women, as the article mentions (see: awakening), but the struggle remains quite fruitless in the communities in the movie and the article. The women remain defined by this view, and are still limited. Each situation faced by these women remains a paradox and the women are still “stuck”.

The article also describes three ways of coping with oppression and pain. I do believe that despite the difference in the three ways to cope (invitation, remembering, and recollection), there would still be a limitation and a similarity in the three and their effects on the women involved.

I imagine that if Insiang’s mother and friends (or just the women in the community) were more accepting and understanding of Insiang’s situation instead of jumping to conclusions, they may have been able to prevent the domestic abuse and the general violence that occurred in the film. If Insiang had instead attempted to take the “remembering” track and tried to accept and deal with the situation differently, the outcome may still have been a repetition of the events in the film because she did take it in and use it to her advantage. However, it was only at the end that it showed that she didn’t truly accept it, as the “remembering” track prescribes. If she did, then the question remains what the outcome may have been. With that, I believe the movie did follow the recollection track, although not exactly. It was probably the closest estimate to this though.

All in all, I believe that perception plays a heavy part in the progression of feminism in the Philippines, as evidenced by the ideas and concrete examples put forth by the article and the movie. The importance of feminism cannot be denied, and the movement must continue because stronger women making a push for it may allow for expansion and inclusion of national interest with women and then other oppressed groups. For Filipinas, it shall be a good way to enable them to get out of oppression and the poor situations they are in (mostly those in the communities in the article and film). However, these are all reliant on the effects of feminism in changing everyone’s perceptions, and then actions, towards women.

Featured Post: Katrina Villanueva of GENDERS A55

One of the best work from my students by far!

Women and Rape

The concept of “Feminism” can be used to explain a political, cultural/social, or economic movement that is designed for establishing equality of the sexes, activism, and legal protection mainly for women. The said concept includes theories that are political and sociological and even philosophies that deals with issues of gender difference, gender equality and campaigns for the rights and interests of women. The history of the feminist thought can be divided into three waves. As what was stated by Maggie Humm and Rebecca Walker, the three waves started from the 18th and early 20th centuries, wherein the movement was mainly to liberate women legally, economically, and politically.[1]During the first wave was the time when the 19th Amendment was approved and women were already given the right to vote. The first-wave feminists came from all parts of theideological spectrum, i.e. Libertarian, Christian conservative, Socialist, and Anarchist. Meanwhile, the second wave was during the 1960s and 1970s. The focus was about the increasing economic chance for and in stopping social discrimination against women. Leftists dominated this wave, unlike those in the first one. Feminist thought has been developed more in recent times, starting from the second wave, wherein it was focused more on an educated approach. Lastly, the third wave started from the 1990s up to now. This wave continued the issues the second wave focused on, like the reproductive rights, gay and transgender rights, abolition of sexism and racism, economic quality and social justice for women and other groups treated as inferiors, and environmentalism.[2] We could say that the theory of feminism has extended through time from these feminist movements.

Basically, what feminism is trying to do is to examine the status of both men and women in the society, which will be mainly for the benefit of women. Feminist theorists have also started to investigate the differences between women, as well as how race, class, ethnicity, and age are interconnected with gender. Feminism may be considered as a tool for uniting all women, and giving a voice to them, as well as giving importance or recognition to their contribution to the society. There are actually four main types of feminist theory, namely gender differences, gender inequality, gender oppression, and structural oppression. I will not be discussing each four of them, but will at least try to give a hint on what they are all mainly about, and that is explaining the societal differences between men and women.[3]

With the movie we watched in class, entitled “Insiang,” I think the said issue regarding the societal differences between women and men and the recognition of the contribution of women in the society were shown. First, I’d start with a brief background to what the movie is all about. So, the movie was mainly about Insiang, Tonya (her mother), Dado, and Bebot. Insiang’s father has abandoned them already, and since then, her mother started mistreating her. When her mother got rid of her father’s relatives from their house, Dado then started to move in with them. Dado, who was Tonya’s live-in partner, loves Insiang. On the other hand, Insiang has a boyfriend, Bebot. That is why Dado used his power to stop Bebot from seeing Insiang.

One night, when Tonya was still sleeping, Dado raped Insiang. The following morning, Insiang told her Mom about what happened, but unfortunately Dado twisted the story and told Tonya that he was just seduced by Insiang.  This is where I think I would first like to focus on. Well actually, there were two issues that struck me most. But first, I would like to raise the issue regarding the part where it was showed how the female victim who got raped was considered as the one at fault for what happened to her. Dado told Insiang’s mother that it was not his fault that he got teased because of the way Insiang dresses and behaves. As for the second issue, it was also illustrated in the movie how men are viewed as the only way for women to escape their lives. Even before Insiang got raped, she already wanted Bebot to marry her because she believes that he is the only way she can get away from home. Then after the incident, Insiang was already desperate so she asked Bebot to run away with her again as she believes that he’s her only hope now and that he could help her forget everything that happened to her. Unfortunately, Bebot only acted as if he was going to help Insiang to get what he wants from her. After they had sex, he just left her in a motel without even saying anything to her. Insiang, having no other choice, decided to go back to their house and live with her mother and Dado again. Only this time, she was already plotting her revenge. The story ends up with Bebot dead because of Dado, and Tonya put into jail for killing Dado. [4]

From the said movie, it was clear how the differences between both men and women are pretty much evident during those times. I’m not sure if it is proper to say that the inequality between men and women was “already” apparent during those times, or if it was “still” apparent. I guess I can only be sure of one thing, and that is the fact that both men and women have long been regarded and treated unequally. This is where the feminist movement comes in. To discuss this more clearly, I’ll also discuss the article, “I am Angry because you are Unjust,” which also shows how women are considered less than men. It was stated in the article how our culture bears down on women. There’s already this role given to women like being obedient and pure until they marry, and the caregivers of the family, which directs how society acts towards women and how women also perceive their selves to be. Moreover, in the said article, there were different stories about the hardships of Filipino women, especially the housewives from Tondo. The fact that they were already poor is not the only thing that makes them less fortunate, but also the fact that they areonly women.

This political and social role given to women has its roots from biology.  Beauvoir even concluded, “Woman is womb.”  From this we could say that women were only interpreted as a body, which defines them as less autonomous than men, or be considered as “the other.” Moreover, women being interpreted only as a body also entails that a woman essentially has the quality of suffering. But the women In Tondo refuses to agree to these answers to the question, “What is a Woman?”[5] Going back to the movie Insiang and to the two issues I’ve raised, it is clear how there is an unequal treatment to men and women, right? So, with the first issue I’ve noticed in the movie, it was the woman who got raped that was regarded as the one at fault for what happened to her. Thing is, Insiang is not the only one who has experienced this, but there are plenty of other women in reality who are always blamed for getting raped, just because.

First off, what is rape? Sexual health, according to the World Health Organization, is the “integration of the physical, emotional, intellectual and social aspects of sexual well being in ways that are enriching and that enhance personality, communication and love.” And perhaps the most apparent problem to sexual health is rape, which is a well-recognized risk factor for a range of physical, reproductive, medical and psychosocial health problems that might lead to immediate or long-term outcomes.[6] Rape is defined as the “act of forced penetration of any bodily orifice accomplished by the use of force, the threat of force or without force when the survivor is unable to physically or mentally give her consent.”[7]Moreover, as stated in Article 266-A of the Philippine Anti- Rape Law of 1997, rape is committed: (1) by a man who shall have carnal knowledge of a woman under any of the following: a. through force, threat, or intimidation; b. when the offended party is deprived of reason or otherwise unconscious; c. by means of fraudulent machination or grave abuse of authority; and d. when the offended party is under twelve years of age or is demented, even though none of the circumstances mentioned above be present.; and (2) by any person who, under any of the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 1 hereof, shall commit an act of sexual assault by inserting his penis into another person’s mouth or anal orifice, or any instrument or object, into the genital or anal orifice of another person.[8]

                  There are many cases wherein rape victims or women were the ones who were blamed for what happened to them that even the survivors blame their selves for this. There’s this common victim-blaming argument, which gives the example of you crossing a busy intersection without checking first if there’s any car on both ways. If doing so, most probably you’ll get hit by a car thus it can be said that you are indeed the one responsible for getting hit by a car because you unsafely crossed the street. Same goes to a woman for example, who went out drinking and got drunk and raped afterwards. That woman should also be at fault because it was her choice to go out drinking, which led to her getting raped.[9]  

What the instances like the one mentioned above states is that girls shouldn’t drink too many, go out alone, wear revealing clothes, or do anything that would put their selves in danger and to avoid provoking men. This does make sense in some way, but still, we couldn’t say that the rapists raped a woman only by accident, right? Using the example used above, the driver of the car that hit you when you crossed the street unsafely can only be considered as an accident. Perhaps he/she didn’t have much time to hit the brakes or something. But we couldn’t say the same for a rapist, can we? It’s not like the rapist could reason out that he accidentally inserted his penis into the girl because she was wearing a skirt or something. The rapist had a choice not to rape, so these kinds of incidents shouldn’t be blamed solely to girls for how they act or dress. Just like in Insiang, Dado pointed out that he’s only human and he can’t help it if he got seduced with how Insiang dresses and acts. Unfortunately, Insiang’s mother believed Dado and got mad to insiang for being “malandi.” This is exactly the problem, because people are so busy blaming rape victims for the way they act, the choices they make, and the dresses they wear that they forgot that there is also a need for educating men on how they should control their feelings and emotions to avoid committing such crime.

According to a study of Ignacio and Perlas in 1995 on Filipino victims, before the rape and even right before they were raped, these women did no evident step to fight or escape from the attack. Although many of them admitted that they actually had the feeling that they were going to get raped, still, they did not do anything to fight or escape. Meanwhile, during the actual rape per se, victims said that they have been passive due to the effect of a drug or they got too drunk, which made it impossible for them to fight and use violence against their attacker. That is why after the rape, most victims suffer from self-blame. Physiologic and emotional reactions were the most common behaviors of the victims after the incident, wherein victims blame themselves for their careless behaviors, and also see their selves as worthless.[10] This belief that woman may have invited the attack either consciously or unconsciously, has caused people to give little sympathy for the rape victim. According to Lerner, many people are biased to believe in a “just world,” which essentially states that most people believe other individuals get what they deserve according to how good or bad they are. The belief that the victim may have acted in a way to provoke the attacker also follows.[11] 

Victims of rape need to do a lot of things in order to forget such a traumatic experience. Most likely, women seek help from men because they believe that they are their only hope. As seen from the movie Insiang, she thought that she didn’t have any other choice to escape but through Bebot. She wanted to elope with him and even promised to do anything for him just so he would agree. She did this because she, herself, believed that men are better than women. She knew that she needed help from him to survive and recover. What she should have was to go away from home and live on her own. She has the abilities to do so on her own. She could have left home and looked for another one and then continue doing laundry or find a job. She didn’t have to go to Bebot and ask help from him, because she should’ve believed that she can on her own, provide for herself and recover. According to McKinnon, what started the Feminist movement is the recognition that the male power is real. In reality, we believe men to be the dominant one thus we see men as everything. When in truth, we are all the same. Women aren’t to be considered less than men, but it’s equal. This realization follows certain ways for women to cope with reality. In application, women who were raped follows ways in order to deal with their aggression and pain, but it need not be through the help of men. The first way is through invitation, wherein a woman needs to feel that she is accepted and accepted.[12] As stated earlier, women who survived rape suffer from self- blame. This is where the help, opinions and reactions of the family, friends, or the whole community are needed.[13] From this, a woman could be comfortable with her pain that would be the start for her to be able to accept her fate and continue with life. The second way is through remembering, wherein it is required to go back and recollect everything she has been through. By doing so, David Michael Levins believed that she would feel a need to regain herself, coming from the intensity of her pain. In remembering such traumatic experience, numbness might be inevitable in order to deal with the torture of recollecting the memory of a very tragic experience. To be numb will be needed in order to reach acceptance of one’s pain. A woman should be able to go deeper within her and know her fears to be able to be stronger and be full again. The last way is through homecoming. It is important to be open-minded or liberated in order to fully break-free and be fully aware of one’s self or identity.[14]

In reality, many survivors feel guilty for getting raped. Some even helped the rapist in raping them, because there are instances wherein the rapist forces his victim to act like she is enjoying the rape. To avoid getting killed, the victim does so as what the rapist asks of her. There’s this survivor, Nancy Raine, wherein she chose to comply to the rapist in order to save her life. Up to now, this incident still haunts her because she cannot accept her decision to act as if she was enjoying the sex just to live. Many survivors other than her suffer from this, which only proves that there is also a need to help them and teach them the importance of going through the given ways above to understand that it was not their fault someone decided to do such a horrible act to them and that they can still go on with their lives.[15]

Rape and other forms of violence against women, like sexual harassment, sex trafficking/pornography, child sexual abuse, physical abuse, and other domestic violence are not a problem of women alone, but of the whole society.[16] With these issues regarding women and rape, the feminist movement has already made a great impact since it first started. Feminists were the ones who tried and are still continuously trying to change the common belief or thinking that the victims are the ones to be blamed for getting raped. Also, the feminist movement has provided ways to educate women on how they could survive and defend their selves if ever they get attacked. Generally, feminists have had a great impact on how the society treats the issue of rape, and how women themselves protect their selves and recover from such experience.[17]

Given the issues I’ve raised regarding how women are commonly blamed for getting raped and the hardships of women in coping with their aggression and pain shows that there is a need public awareness of the violence and horror of rape as a start to make social change really possible. Feminism could be of great help for Filipinos, or mainly the Filipino women, because this movement calls for the restructuring of society and even gender identities. The acknowledgement of women to the fact that men are dominant than men was the start of the movement. The consciousness to the unequal treatment has started the move against the fight against violence and the oppression to women.  It is true that Filipino women have long been enjoying rights, like the right to education and the right to vote. But is that all Filipino women or even all the women in the world needs? Well, the answer is no. In the society we live in today, there is still this established view on women. We could see this in how the media supports the customary image of women as martyrs, sex objects, mothers, housewives, and as mistresses. Women are still described with inferior roles than men and are mostly depicted as dependent on men, nurturers, submissive and are only concerned more on how they look and leisure.[18] Well, yes, looking on the bright side, women in our country have been given more power and recognition than in other states. But having said this, we still could not say that Filipinas could already fully enjoy equal treatment from the whole Philippine society given the fact that there is still this belief about the societal and political roles that directs how society treats women.[19] The move for the equal treatment and recognition to women is still a battle that we face everyday. It is not enough that we should be contented with what we are experiencing now just because, we Filipino women, are already treated somewhat equally to men than other states. We still have a long way to go in fighting for our rights and in establishing equality and fairness between the gender roles.






[1] GWANET, “History and Theory of Feminism,” GWANET, February 25, 2013).

[2] Intellectual Takeout, “History of Feminism Theory,” Intellectual Takeout, n.d., (accessed February 25, 2013).

[3] Ashley Crossman, “Feminist Theory an Overview,”, (accessed February 25, 2013).




[4] Insiang, 1976.

[5] Jeane Peracullo, “I Am Angry Because You Are Unjust: A Filipino Woman’s Awakening to Feminism,” Dalumat Ejournal 1, no. 2 (2010): 62-65.

[6] Projestine Muganyizi, et al., “Rape Against Women: The Magnitude, Perpetrators, and Patterns of Disclosure of Events in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania,” African Journal of Reproductive Health 8, no. 3 (December, 2004): 138.

[7] June Pagaduan-Lopez, et al., “Surviving Rape: Profile and Coping Reactions of Filipino Rape Survivors Seen at the Up-Pgh Women’s Desk” (UP, 1999-2000), 18.

[8] Chan Robles Groups, Republic Act No. 8353: An Act Expanding the Definition of the Crime of Rape, Reclassifying the Same as a Crime Against Persons, Amending for the Purpose Act No. 3815, as Amended, Otherwise Known as the Revised Penal Code, and for Other Purposes., in the Chan Robles Virtual Law Library, (accessed February 25, 2013).

[9] Pandora’s Project, “Was It My Fault? Self-Blame and Survivors,” Pandora’s Project, (accessed February 25, 2013).

[10] June Pagaduan-Lopez, et al., 32-34.

[11] Priscilla White and Judith Rollins, “Rape: A Family Crisis,” Family Relations 30, no. 1 (January, 1981): 104.

[12] Jeane Peracullo, 66.

[13] June Pagaduan-Lopez, et al., 34.

[14] Jeane Peracullo, 66-67.

[15] Pandora’s Project, “Was It My Fault? Self-Blame and Survivors,” Pandora’s Project, (accessed February 25, 2013).

[16] Ina Alleco Silverio, “Rape, Cases of Violence Against Women On the Rise – Gabriela,”, November 9, 2012.–-gabriela/ (accessed February 25, 2013).

[17]  Craig Palmer, “Twelve Reasons Why Rape Is Not Sexually Motivated: A Skeptical Examination,” The Journal of Sex Research 25, no. 4 (1988): 512.

[18] Maria Marien, “Feminism and the Present Image of Filipino Women,” A Passerby’s Trail, entry posted October 17, 1996, February 25, 2013).

[19] G. Fitzsimmons, “The Changing Role of Women in Philippine Society,” Helium, (accessed February 25, 2013).